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Issue 32, 2013
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Electrochemical elaboration of electrodes and electrolytes for 3D structured batteries

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Abstract

The challenges associated with the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) electrode and electrolyte materials for Li-ion batteries are discussed. The basic issues for achieving a solid 3D cell foundation, which can simultaneously offer sufficient electronic conductivity to enable stable cycling, as well as enough compatibility with the incorporation of complementary components, have been addressed. Various electrochemical strategies for elaborating such systems are discussed and critically examined. Several current collector systems are presented including electrochemically prepared Cu and Al nanorods and commercial aperiodic carbon structures. Further electrochemical coating approaches then provide a direct method for the deposition of thin layers of active materials successfully demonstrated here as coatings on both 3D metal structures and commercially available 3D-structured carbon substrates. Enhanced capacities per foot print area are demonstrated for a number of 3D electrode materials, namely polyaniline on reticulated vitreous carbon, Cu2O on copper nanorods and TiO2 on Al nanorods. The crucial points for achieving a thin conformal coating of the corresponding 3D electrode structures with solid polymer electrolytes are also carefully analysed and discussed. In this context electro-polymerisation is proposed as a viable route to form thin electrolyte layers with promising characteristics. The high versatility of electro-polymerisation in combination with the various structures and methodologies adopted here represents a further step towards the development of cost-effective 3D microbattery devices.

Graphical abstract: Electrochemical elaboration of electrodes and electrolytes for 3D structured batteries

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Publication details

The article was received on 15 May 2013, accepted on 21 Jun 2013 and first published on 21 Jun 2013


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C3TA11921A
J. Mater. Chem. A, 2013,1, 9281-9293

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    Electrochemical elaboration of electrodes and electrolytes for 3D structured batteries

    M. Valvo, M. Roberts, G. Oltean, B. Sun, D. Rehnlund, D. Brandell, L. Nyholm, T. Gustafsson and K. Edström, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2013, 1, 9281
    DOI: 10.1039/C3TA11921A

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