Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)–oxidized carbon nanotubes (OMWCNTs), PVDF–graphene oxide (GO) and PVDF–OMWCNTs–GO composite ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by solution-blending the ternary mixture of PVDF–oxidized low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials–dimethylacetamide in combination with the phase inversion method. The microscope images of the PVDF matrix microstructure showed that the composite membranes exhibited a bigger mean pore size and higher roughness parameters than pristine membranes. The contact angle of the membranes decreased from 78.5° (PVDF) to 66.8° (PVDF–OMWCNTs), 66.4° (PVDF–GO) and 48.5° (PVDF–OMWCNTs–GO). For the PVDF–OMWCNTs, PVDF–GO and PVDF–OMWCNTs–GO composite membranes, there was a 99.33%, 173.03% and 240.03% increase in permeation flux and a 21.71%, 17.23% and 14.29% increase in bovine serum albumin (BSA) rejection, respectively, compared with those of the pristine membranes. The newly developed composite ultrafiltration membranes demonstrate an impressive prospect for the anti-irreversible fouling performance in multi-cycle operations from BSA treatment. Additionally, the addition of OMWCNTs and GO increased the tensile strength of composite membranes from 1.866 MPa to 2.106 MPa and 2.686 MPa, respectively. Conspicuously, the PVDF composite ultrafiltration membranes endowed with oxidized low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials demonstrated fascinating hydrophilicity, permeability, antifouling and mechanical performance and promising application prospects owing to the rich oxygen-containing functional groups, high specific surface and synergistic effect of inorganic additive.
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