Interfacial deflection and jetting of a paramagnetic particle-laden fluid: theory and experiment
We describe the results of experiments and mathematical analysis of the deformation of a free surface by an aggregate of magnetic particles. The system we study is differentiated from ferrofluid systems because it contains regions rich with magnetic material as well as regions of negligible magnetic content. In our experiments, the magnetic force from a spherical permanent magnet collects magnetic particles to a liquid–air interface, and deforms the free surface to form a hump. The hump is composed of magnetic and non-magnetic regions due to the particle collection. When the magnet distance falls below a threshold value, we observe the transition of the hump to a jet. The mathematical model we develop, which consists of a numerical solution and an asymptotic approximation, captures the shape of the liquid–air interface during the deformation stage and a scaling prediction for the critical magnet distance for the hump to become a jet.