As an important research area, the development of antibacterial materials has attracted extensive interest from researchers. Typical antibacterial materials involve the use of biocides and antibacterial metallic ions, such as Ag+, as well as killing by highly reactive species, such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide produced by the photocatalysis of TiO2. However, the intensive usage of biocides has a growing concern in the increase of bacterial resistance and cross-resistance to antibiotics and antibacterial Ag+ depending on its dissolution property may have potential implications on human health and environment. Currently TiO2 is mainly activated with UVA light and research on visible light photocatalysis is still under development. Recently, a new scheme using superhydrophobicity has raised more attention and interests especially for its ability in reducing bacterial adhesion. This paper provides a detailed review on the basics, recent developments, existing challenges and future perspectives of superhydrophobic surfaces especially in reducing bacterial adhesion.
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