Paper-based electroanalytical devices with an integrated, stable reference electrode
This paper describes the development of a referenced Electrochemical Paper-based Analytical Device (rEPAD) comprising a sample zone, a reference zone, and a connecting microfluidic channel that includes a central contact zone. We demonstrated that the rEPADs provide a simple system for direct and accurate voltammetric measurements that are referenced by an electrode with a constant, well-defined potential. The performance of the rEPADs is comparable to commercial electrochemical cells, and the layout can be easily integrated into systems that permit multiplexed analysis and pipette-free sampling. The cost of this portable device is sufficiently low that it could be for single-use, disposable applications, and its method of fabrication is compatible with that used for other paper-based systems.