Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 10, 2013
Previous Article Next Article

Conversion of fructose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and alkyl levulinates catalyzed by sulfonic acid-functionalized carbon materials

Author affiliations

Abstract

A series of sulfonic acid-functionalized carbon materials (C–SO3H), including poly(p-styrenesulfonic acid)-grafted carbon nanotubes (CNT-PSSA), poly(p-styrenesulfonic acid)-grafted carbon nanofibers (CNF-PSSA), benzenesulfonic acid-grafted CMK-5 (CMK-5-BSA), and benzenesulfonic acid-grafted carbon nanotubes (CNT-BSA), have been studied for fructose dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and fructose alcoholysis to alkyl levulinate. A study for optimizing the reaction conditions such as the catalyst loading, the reaction time, and the temperature has been performed. Under the optimal conditions, high HMF and ethyl levulinate yields of up to 89% and 86%, respectively, are obtained. The catalytic activities of C–SO3H for the conversions of fructose into both HMF and ethyl levulinate follow the order of their acid strength. The relationship between the catalytic activity and acid density of C–SO3H shows a linear correspondence in the fructose dehydration to HMF. The facile separation, ease of recovery, and high thermal stability make the developed C–SO3H efficient and environment-friendly catalytic materials for transforming biomass carbohydrate into fine chemicals.

Graphical abstract: Conversion of fructose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and alkyl levulinates catalyzed by sulfonic acid-functionalized carbon materials

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
13 Jun 2013
Accepted
05 Aug 2013
First published
06 Aug 2013

Green Chem., 2013,15, 2895-2903
Article type
Paper

Conversion of fructose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and alkyl levulinates catalyzed by sulfonic acid-functionalized carbon materials

R. Liu, J. Chen, X. Huang, L. Chen, L. Ma and X. Li, Green Chem., 2013, 15, 2895 DOI: 10.1039/C3GC41139G

To request permission to reproduce material from this article, please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page.

If you are an author contributing to an RSC publication, you do not need to request permission provided correct acknowledgement is given.

If you are the author of this article, you do not need to request permission to reproduce figures and diagrams provided correct acknowledgement is given. If you want to reproduce the whole article in a third-party publication (excluding your thesis/dissertation for which permission is not required) please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page.

Read more about how to correctly acknowledge RSC content.


Social activity

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements