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Issue 3, 2013
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Empowering the smart grid: can redox batteries be matched to renewable energy systems for energy storage?

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Abstract

The charging of an undivided cerium–zinc redox battery by various current waveforms some of which mimic the output of renewable energy (solar, wind, tidal, biofuel burning) to electricity transducers is considered in this work, where the battery operates through diffusion-only conditions, and is discharged galvanostatically. Under reasonable assumption, the mathematical model developed enables the observation that the performance characteristic of the cells charged with a constant power input differentiates between the various current–charge waveforms, with cell geometry and electrode kinetics playing subtle, but significant, roles; in particular, high efficiency is observed for sunlight-charged batteries which are thin and suffer no corrosion of the sacrificial electrode, and which have already experienced a charge–discharge cycle. The performance characteristics of the systems are interpreted in the light of consequences for smart grid realisation, and indicate that, for a constant power input, the most matched renewable is biofuel burning with a current output that linearly increases with time.

Graphical abstract: Empowering the smart grid: can redox batteries be matched to renewable energy systems for energy storage?

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
05 Oct 2012
Accepted
10 Jan 2013
First published
11 Jan 2013

Energy Environ. Sci., 2013,6, 1026-1041
Article type
Paper

Empowering the smart grid: can redox batteries be matched to renewable energy systems for energy storage?

J. E. Halls, A. Hawthornthwaite, R. J. Hepworth, N. A. Roberts, K. J. Wright, Y. Zhou, S. J. Haswell, S. K. Haywood, S. M. Kelly, N. S. Lawrence and J. D. Wadhawan, Energy Environ. Sci., 2013, 6, 1026 DOI: 10.1039/C3EE23708G

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