Challenges of non-aqueous Li–O2 batteries: electrolytes, catalysts, and anodes
A lot of attention has been paid to Li–O2 batteries in recent years, due to the huge potential specific energy and energy density, and they are extensively studied around the world. Much advance has been achieved, however, the fundamental understanding is still insufficient and challenges remain. Here, we provide a specific perspective on the development of non-aqueous Li–O2 batteries excluding those with aqueous, ionic liquid, hybrid, and solid-state electrolytes, because non-aqueous Li–O2 batteries possess a relatively simple configuration and the research on non-aqueous Li–O2 batteries is the most active of all Li–O2 batteries. The discussion will be focused on non-aqueous electrolytes, cathode catalysts, and anodes, and corresponding perspectives are provided at the end.