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Issue 13, 2013
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Investigation of solid/vapor interfaces using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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Abstract

Heterogeneous chemical reactions at vapor/solid interfaces play an important role in many processes in the environment and technology. Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) is a valuable tool to investigate the elemental composition and chemical specificity of surfaces and adsorbates on the molecular scale at pressures of up to 130 mbar. In this review we summarize the historical development of APXPS since its introduction over forty years ago, discuss different approaches to minimize scattering of electrons by gas molecules, and give a comprehensive overview about the experimental systems (vapor/solid interfaces) that have been studied so far. We also present several examples for the application of APXPS to environmental science, heterogeneous catalysis, and electrochemistry.

Graphical abstract: Investigation of solid/vapor interfaces using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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Article information


Submitted
08 Feb 2013
First published
19 Apr 2013

This article is Open Access

Chem. Soc. Rev., 2013,42, 5833-5857
Article type
Review Article

Investigation of solid/vapor interfaces using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

D. E. Starr, Z. Liu, M. Hävecker, A. Knop-Gericke and H. Bluhm, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2013, 42, 5833 DOI: 10.1039/C3CS60057B

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. You can use material from this article in other publications without requesting further permissions from the RSC, provided that the correct acknowledgement is given.

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