Design and functionalization strategies for multifunctional nanocarriers (e.g., nanoparticles, micelles, polymersomes) based on biodegradable/biocompatible polymers intended to be employed for active targeting and drug delivery are reviewed. This review will focus on the nature of the polymers involved in the preparation of targeted nanocarriers, the synthesis methods to achieve the desired macromolecular architecture, the selected coupling strategy, the choice of the homing molecules (vitamins, hormones, peptides, proteins, etc.), as well as the various strategies to display them at the surface of nanocarriers. The resulting morphologies and the main colloidal features will be given as well as an overview of the biological activities, with a special focus on the main in vivo achievements.
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