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Issue 29, 2013
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Experimental and computational insights in the growth of gallium-doped zinc oxide nanostructures with superior field emission properties

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Abstract

Well-aligned, single-crystalline Ga-doped zinc oxide nanopagoda arrays were fabricated on silicon substrates via a metal–organic chemical vapor deposition method. Gallium atoms played a crucial role in transforming the lateral facets of nanorods from {1[1 with combining macron]00} to two sets of facets: ({11[2 with combining macron]1}, {11[2 with combining macron][2 with combining macron]}) and ({[2 with combining macron]201}, {[1 with combining macron]10[1 with combining macron]}), which eventually led to a pagoda shape. Based on computational simulation results, gallium lowers the surface energies of the ({11[2 with combining macron]1}, {11[2 with combining macron][2 with combining macron]}) and ({[2 with combining macron]201}, {[1 with combining macron]10[1 with combining macron]}) planes but increases that of the {1[1 with combining macron]00} plane. We proposed a new growth model, which involves the change of surface energy calculated by computational simulation due to Ga doping, to interpret why the smooth {1[1 with combining macron]00} planes of nanorods transform to corrugated ({11[2 with combining macron]1}, {11[2 with combining macron][2 with combining macron]}) and ({[2 with combining macron]201}, {[1 with combining macron]10[1 with combining macron]}) planes of nanopagodas. The nanopagodas not only possess excellent crystal quality but also exhibit remarkable field emission properties. Field emitters made of Ga-doped ZnO nanopagodas had a low turn-on field due to the decrease of work function and the increase of conductivity caused by Ga; simultaneously, the interesting pagoda shape enhanced significantly the field emission β values by 18 times.

Graphical abstract: Experimental and computational insights in the growth of gallium-doped zinc oxide nanostructures with superior field emission properties

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Publication details

The article was received on 17 Jan 2013, accepted on 13 Mar 2013 and first published on 14 Mar 2013


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C3CE40101D
CrystEngComm, 2013,15, 5764-5775

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    Experimental and computational insights in the growth of gallium-doped zinc oxide nanostructures with superior field emission properties

    H. Chiu, H. Tsai, W. Hsu and J. Wu, CrystEngComm, 2013, 15, 5764
    DOI: 10.1039/C3CE40101D

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