Therapeutic inorganic ions in bioactive glasses to enhance bone formation and beyond
Bioactive glasses (BG) are being widely used for bone tissue engineering applications due to their bioactivity (ability to form strong bonds to bone) and their stimulating effects on bone formation. Recently, progress has been made to enhance the biological impact of BGs by incorporating specific metallic ions in silicate (or phosphate) glasses, including boron, copper, cobalt, silver, zinc and strontium. This review summarizes the newest developments on novel compositions of bioactive glasses in the field of bone tissue engineering related to osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Furthermore, new applications areas for bioactive glasses, including nerve regeneration and cancer treatment, are highlighted.