Combined in situ atomic force microscopy and infrared attenuated total reflection spectroelectrochemistry†
A novel analytical platform combining infrared attenuated total reflection (IR-ATR) spectroelectrochemistry (SE) with atomic force microscopy (AFM) using a boron-doped diamond (BDD)-modified ATR crystal is presented. The utility of this combination is demonstrated investigating the electrodeposition of a polymer film via IR spectroscopy, while the surface modification is simultaneously imaged by AFM. The ATR waveguide consists of a single-crystal intrinsic diamond overgrown with a homoepitaxial BDD layer (thickness: ∼100 nm, boron content: ∼5 × 1020 cm−3) to provide electric conductivity. The diamond ATR crystal is shaped in the form of a hemisphere with a beveled top and an octahedronal surface area of approximately 400 μm2. To demonstrate combined IR-ATR-SE-AFM measurements, the electro-polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxothiophene (EDOT) was selected as a model system. Depositions were obtained from aqueous solutions, while changes in IR signature, topography, and electrochemical behavior were recorded in situ and simultaneously during the polymerization process.