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Issue 4, 2012
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Molecular engineering of chromophores for combined second-harmonic and two-photon fluorescence in cellular imaging

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Abstract

A series of chromophores with enhanced second- and third-order nonlinear optical properties were engineered for use in combined second-harmonic and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Electron-accepting moieties imparted nonlinear optical properties to the chromophores. The electron-rich carbazole core served as a template towards one- or two-dimensional chromophores. More efficient acceptor groups (pyridinium, benzazolium, benzothiazolium) on the carbazole donor core resulted in improved second- and third-order nonlinear optical properties. A selection of these chromophores was tested in a cellular environment with a multimodal multiphoton microscope. The structural differences of the chromophores resulted in high selectivity for mitochondria or the nucleus in two-photon fluorescence and ranging from no signal to high selectivity for mitochondria in the SHG channel.

Graphical abstract: Molecular engineering of chromophores for combined second-harmonic and two-photon fluorescence in cellular imaging

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
07 Oct 2011
Accepted
22 Jan 2012
First published
25 Jan 2012

Chem. Sci., 2012,3, 984-995
Article type
Edge Article

Molecular engineering of chromophores for combined second-harmonic and two-photon fluorescence in cellular imaging

E. De Meulenaere, W. Chen, S. Van Cleuvenbergen, M. Zheng, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, R. Paesen, J. Taymans, M. Ameloot, J. Vanderleyden, P. Loza-Alvarez, X. Duan and K. Clays, Chem. Sci., 2012, 3, 984
DOI: 10.1039/C2SC00771A

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