Development and evaluation of 90Y-labeled albumin microspheres loaded with magnetite nanoparticles for possible applications in cancer therapy
Radiolabeled albumin microspheres with encapsulated citric acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles were developed as a targeting approach to localize both radioactivity and magnetic energy at the tumor site. We present in vitro and in vivo studies of yttrium-90 (90Y)-labeled human serum albumin magnetic microspheres (HSAMMS) as a multifunctional agent for possible applications in a bimodal radionuclide-hyperthermia cancer therapy. The HSAMMS were produced using a modified emulsification-heat stabilization technique and contained 11 nm magnetite nanoparticles coated with citric acid, distributed as inhomogeneous clusters within the albumin microspheres. The size, size distribution and the morphology of magnetite nanoparticles and HSAMMS were determined by FESEM, HRTEM and SEM/FIB dual beam. The average particle size of the complete HSAMMS was 20 μm, and they exhibited superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The in vitro experiments (in saline and human serum) revealed the high stability of the labeled HSAMMS in saline and human serum after 72 h. Following the intravenous administration of the 90Y-HSAMMS in rats, 88.81% of the activity localizes in the lungs after 1 h, with 82.67% remaining after 72 h. These data on 90Y-HSAMMS provide good evidence for their potential use in bimodal radionuclide-hyperthermia cancer therapy.