Glycolysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits temporal oscillation under anaerobic or semianaerobic conditions. Previous evidence indicated that at least two membrane-bound ATPases, the mitochondrial F0F1 ATPase and the plasma membrane P-type ATPase (Pma1p), were important in regulating the glycolytic oscillation. Measurements of intracellular ATP provide a unique tool to understand the role of these membrane ATPases and how their activities are regulated. We have constructed a new nanobiosensor that can perform time-resolved measurements of intracellular ATP in intact cells. Measurements of the temporal behaviour of intracellular ATP in a yeast strain with oscillating glycolysis showed that, in addition to oscillation in intracellular ATP, there is an overall slow decrease in intracellular ATP because the ATP consumption rate exceeds the ATP production in glycolysis. Measurements of the temporal behaviour of intracellular ATP in yeast strains lacking either of the two membrane bound ATPases have confirmed that F0F1 ATPase and Pma1p contribute significantly to the ATP consumption in the cell and to the regulation of glycolytic oscillation. Furthermore, our measurements also demonstrate that ATPase activity is under strict control. In the absence of glucose ATPase activity is switched off, and the intracellular ATP concentration is high. When glucose is added to the cells the ATP concentration starts to decrease, because ATP consumption exceeds ATP production by glycolysis. Finally, when glucose is used up, the ATP consumption stops immediately. Thus, glucose or some compound derived from glucose must be involved in controlling the activity of these two ATPases.
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