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Issue 9, 2012
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Water mediated Heck and Ullmann couplings by supported palladium nanoparticles: importance of surface polarity of the carbon spheres

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Abstract

Heterogeneous palladium nanoparticle catalysts that are supported on amphiphilic carbon spheres (Pd@CSP) have been utilized for water-mediated Heck coupling reactions of aryl halides with different alkenes under phosphine free as well as aerobic conditions. Furthermore, a variety of Heck coupling reactions using different bases and solvents, including organic polar and non-polar solvents, have been explored. Aryl bromides are also well activated in Heck coupling reactions in organic polar solvent and as well as in water. In addition, Ullmann coupling reactions of aryl iodides have been catalyzed in water with the aid of phase transfer catalysts (PTC) in moderate yields. A plausible mechanism for the catalytic activity of Pd@CSP in the case of the Ullmann reaction is also established. It has been demonstrated that the hydrophobic effects of the catalyst surface play an important role in catalyst activity in water. In addition, the E-factor analysis verified that our present protocol is significantly comparable with other catalytic systems and explains the improved greenness. Moreover, the catalyst described in this process is not only greener, but also retains its significant activity for up to four catalytic cycles for the Heck coupling reactions. The surface polarity of the amphiphilic carbon spheres results in higher activity under these conditions.

Graphical abstract: Water mediated Heck and Ullmann couplings by supported palladium nanoparticles: importance of surface polarity of the carbon spheres

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
09 Nov 2011
Accepted
24 May 2012
First published
05 Jul 2012

Green Chem., 2012,14, 2513-2522
Article type
Paper

Water mediated Heck and Ullmann couplings by supported palladium nanoparticles: importance of surface polarity of the carbon spheres

A. Kamal, V. Srinivasulu, B. N. Seshadri, N. Markandeya, A. Alarifi and N. Shankaraiah, Green Chem., 2012, 14, 2513
DOI: 10.1039/C2GC16430B

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