Temperature is one factor that influences the performance of immunoassays. Most commonly all incubation steps of the immunoassay are performed at ambient temperature. To systematically study the influence of temperature deviations on assay parameters like signal variation coefficients, limit of detection and measurement range, direct competitive enzyme immunoassays for the determination of two anthropogenic markers, caffeine and carbamazepine, were run at different temperatures above and below room temperature during individual assay steps. The temperature during the competition step had the greatest impact on the assay sensitivity yielding changes in test midpoints by a factor of 10 to 15. For carbamazepine, the test midpoints varied from 36 ng L−1, 108 ng L−1 to 378 ng L−1 employing 4 °C, 21 °C, or 37 °C as incubation temperature, respectively. The edge effect can be minimized resulting in a good plate homogeneity with small variation coefficients, when the assay is performed at ambient temperature.
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