Chemistry with spatial control using particles and streams†
Spatial control of chemical reactions, with micro- and nanometer scale resolution, has important consequences for one pot synthesis, engineering complex reactions, developmental biology, cellular biochemistry and emergent behavior. We review synthetic methods to engineer this spatial control using chemical diffusion from spherical particles, shells and polyhedra. We discuss systems that enable both isotropic and anisotropic chemical release from isolated and arrayed particles to create inhomogeneous and spatially patterned chemical fields. In addition to such finite chemical sources, we also discuss spatial control enabled with laminar flow in 2D and 3D microfluidic networks. Throughout the paper, we highlight applications of spatially controlled chemistry in chemical kinetics, reaction-diffusion systems, chemotaxis and morphogenesis.