Redox flow batteries, which have been developed over the last 40 years, are used to store energy on the medium to large scale, particularly in applications such as load levelling, power quality control and facilitating renewable energy deployment. Various electrode materials and cell chemistries have been proposed; some of the successful systems have been demonstrated on a large-scale in the range of 10 kW–10 MW. Enhanced performance is attributable to the improvements in electrodes, separator materials and an increasing awareness of cell design. This comprehensive review provides a summary of the overall development of redox flow battery technology, including proposed chemistries, cell components and recent applications. Remaining challenges and directions for further research are highlighted.
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