Ionic liquids designed for advanced applications in bioelectrochemistry
Recent applications of ionic liquids (ILs) as sustainable media in biochemistry and bioelectrochemistry are reviewed. The use of ILs as solvents for biopolymers such as proteins is particularly important in bioelectrochemistry. Maintenance of the higher-ordered structure of proteins after dissolution in IL is essential for the applications envisaged. The affinity between ILs and proteins is discussed in relation to the design of new solvents. IL-modified electrodes are another important topic for bioelectrochemistry. Some bio-related facets of ILs are also reviewed for the understanding of the usefulness of ILs for this field. The use of ILs in bioscience has led to the development of new types of biodevices, and has also been mentioned.