Pd-grafted periodic mesoporous organosilica: an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for Hiyama and Sonogashira couplings, and cyanation reactions†
The high surface area of 2D-hexagonal periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) containing a phloroglucinol-diimine moiety inside the pore wall has been utilized for grafting Pd(II) at the surface of the mesopores. This Pd-containing PMO material (Pd-LHMS-3) shows excellent catalytic activity in fluoride-free Hiyama cross-coupling reactions in water at alkaline pH conditions. Sonogashira cross-couplings between terminal alkynes and aryl halides take place in the presence of water and hexamine as base in the absence of any Cu co-catalyst. Cyanation of aryl halides is equally promoted with K4[Fe(CN)6] as the cyanide source (in the absence of poisonous KCN, NaCN or Zn(CN)2) over Pd-LHMS-3. Excellent yield of the products, reusability and the facile work-up could make this Pd-grafted PMO material a unique catalyst for the synthesis of substituted benzonitriles, unsymmetrical biphenyls and di-substituted alkynes under environmentally benign reaction conditions. Further good yield of products and no evidence of leached Pd from the catalyst surface during the reaction and its smooth recovery confirm the true heterogeneity in these catalytic reactions.