Nitric oxide release: Part II. Therapeutic applications
A wide range of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing materials has emerged as potential therapeutics that exploit NO's vast biological roles. Macromolecular NO-releasing scaffolds are particularly promising due to their ability to store and deliver larger NO payloads in a more controlled and effective manner compared to low molecular weight NO donors. While a variety of scaffolds (e.g., particles, dendrimers, and polymers/films) have been cleverly designed, the ultimate clinical utility of most NO-releasing macromolecules remains unrealized. Although not wholly predictive of clinical success, in vitro and in vivo investigations have enabled a preliminary evaluation of the therapeutic potential of such materials. In this tutorial review, we review the application of macromolecular NO therapies for cardiovascular disease, cancer, bacterial infections, and wound healing.