Nitric oxide release: Part III. Measurement and reporting
Nitric oxide's expansive physiological and regulatory roles have driven the development of therapies for human disease that would benefit from exogenous NO administration. Already a number of therapies utilizing gaseous NO or NO donors capable of storing and delivering NO have been proposed and designed to exploit NO's influence on the cardiovascular system, cancer biology, the immune response, and wound healing. As described in Nitric oxide release: Part I. Macromolecular scaffolds and Part II. Therapeutic applications, the preparation of new NO-release strategies/formulations and the study of their therapeutic utility are increasing rapidly. However, comparison of such studies remains difficult due to the diversity of scaffolds, NO measurement strategies, and reporting methods employed across disciplines. This tutorial review highlights useful analytical techniques for the detection and measurement of NO. We also stress the importance of reporting NO delivery characteristics to allow appropriate comparison of NO between studies as a function of material and intended application.