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Issue 75, 2012
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The chemistry of four-membered aromatics

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This article provides an overview on the aromatic systems of four-membered rings. These aromatic four-membered ring systems are rather exotic because of a poor correspondence between the Hückel rule and the structure of four-membered rings. Consequently, such aromatics are generally dications or dianions, to form 2π or 6π electron systems respectively. Alternatively, the use of open-shell structures or empty d-orbitals of transition metal atoms could give neutral aromatic four-membered ring systems. This paper summarizes the four-membered aromatic compounds reported to date and describes the various methods for evaluating their aromaticity.

Graphical abstract: The chemistry of four-membered aromatics

  • This article is part of the themed collection: Aromaticity
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Article information

27 Feb 2012
09 Jul 2012
First published
10 Jul 2012

Chem. Commun., 2012,48, 9334-9342
Article type
Feature Article

The chemistry of four-membered aromatics

Y. Matsuo and M. Maruyama, Chem. Commun., 2012, 48, 9334
DOI: 10.1039/C2CC34244H

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