Ratiometric optical oxygen sensing: a review in respect of material design
The quantitative determination of oxygen concentration is essential for a variety of applications ranging from life sciences to environmental sciences. Optical oxygen sensing allows non-invasive measurements with biological objects, parallel monitoring of multiple samples, and imaging. In general, ratiometric optical oxygen sensing is more desirable, due to its advantages of selectivity, insensitivity to ambient or scattered light, and elimination of instrumental fluctuation. Moreover, it can provide the perceived colour change, which would be useful not only for the ratiometric method of detection but also for rapid visual sensing. Mainly focusing on material design for ratiometric measurement, this review describes the overall progress made in the past ten years on ratiometric optical ground-state triplet oxygen sensing and offers a critical comparison of various methods reported in the literature. It also provides a development blueprint for ratiometric optical oxygen sensing.