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Issue 4, 2011
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Spatial distribution, electron microscopy analysis of titanium and its correlation to heavy metals: Occurrence and sources of titanium nanomaterials in surface sediments from Xiamen Bay, China

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Abstract

Titanium nanomaterials are likely to sink into sediments in substantial quantities due to their wide use in a number of applications for decades. To assess the potential environmental consequences, a better understanding is required of the occurrence and sources of titanium (Ti) nanomaterials in sediments. In this research, we provide the first report of the Ti concentrations and the morphology and composition of Ti-based solids in surface sediments from Xiamen Bay, China. Results indicated that the anthropogenic Ti concentrations in the surface sediments from Xiamen Bay reached approximately 2.74 g kgāˆ’1. Ti nanomaterials could be found in sediments with elevated Ti concentrations, which were often aggregated to a few hundred nanometers (<300 nm) and were composed of several spherical particles, less than 50 nm in size, that were made solely of TiOx. However, Ti particles (approx. 300ā€“700 nm) could be also found in sediments with lower Ti concentrations, which were presumably components of the natural clay mineral kaolinite. Ti nanomaterials could be easily distributed in sediments associated with elevated levels of organic matter and preferentially attach to those sediments with elevated fine fractions. As a sentinel, or tracer, for other nanomaterials, the field-scale investigation of Ti nanomaterials would contribute to increasing our knowledge on the behavior of engineered nanomaterials in an aquatic environment.

Graphical abstract: Spatial distribution, electron microscopy analysis of titanium and its correlation to heavy metals: Occurrence and sources of titanium nanomaterials in surface sediments from Xiamen Bay, China

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Publication details

The article was received on 11 May 2010, accepted on 17 Jan 2011 and first published on 23 Feb 2011


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C0EM00199F
J. Environ. Monit., 2011,13, 1046-1052

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    Spatial distribution, electron microscopy analysis of titanium and its correlation to heavy metals: Occurrence and sources of titanium nanomaterials in surface sediments from Xiamen Bay, China

    Z. Luo, Z. Wang, Q. Li, Q. Pan, C. Yan and F. Liu, J. Environ. Monit., 2011, 13, 1046
    DOI: 10.1039/C0EM00199F

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