Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 1, 2011
Previous Article Next Article

TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers

Author affiliations


Native wood celluloses can be converted to individual nanofibers 3–4 nm wide that are at least several microns in length, i.e. with aspect ratios >100, by TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation and successive mild disintegration in water. Preparation methods and fundamental characteristics of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCN) are reviewed in this paper. Significant amounts of C6 carboxylate groups are selectively formed on each cellulose microfibril surface by TEMPO-mediated oxidation without any changes to the original crystallinity (∼74%) or crystal width of wood celluloses. Electrostatic repulsion and/or osmotic effects working between anionically-charged cellulose microfibrils, the ζ-potentials of which are approximately −75 mV in water, cause the formation of completely individualized TOCN dispersed in water by gentle mechanical disintegration treatment of TEMPO-oxidized wood cellulose fibers. Self-standing TOCN films are transparent and flexible, with high tensile strengths of 200–300 MPa and elastic moduli of 6–7 GPa. Moreover, TOCN-coated poly(lactic acid) films have extremely low oxygen permeability. The new cellulose-based nanofibers formed by size reduction process of native cellulose fibers by TEMPO-mediated oxidation have potential application as environmentally friendly and new bio-based nanomaterials in high-tech fields.

Graphical abstract: TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers

Back to tab navigation

Publication details

The article was received on 11 Aug 2010, accepted on 02 Sep 2010 and first published on 19 Oct 2010

Article type: Review Article
DOI: 10.1039/C0NR00583E
Nanoscale, 2011,3, 71-85

  •   Request permissions

    TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers

    A. Isogai, T. Saito and H. Fukuzumi, Nanoscale, 2011, 3, 71
    DOI: 10.1039/C0NR00583E

Search articles by author