Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 18, 2011
Previous Article Next Article

Benchtop micromolding of polystyrene by soft lithography

Author affiliations


Polystyrene (PS), a standard material for cell culture consumable labware, was molded into microstructures with high fidelity of replication by an elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. The process was a simple, benchtop method based on soft lithography using readily available materials. The key to successful replica molding by this simple procedure relies on the use of a solvent, for example, gamma-butyrolactone, which dissolves PS without swelling the PDMS mold. PS solution was added to the PDMS mold, and evaporation of the solvent was accomplished by baking the mold on a hotplate. Microstructures with feature sizes as small as 3 μm and aspect ratios as large as 7 were readily molded. Prototypes of microfluidic chips made from PS were prepared by thermal bonding of a microchannel molded in PS with a flat PS substrate. The PS microfluidic chip displayed much lower adsorption and absorption of hydrophobic molecules (e.g. rhodamine B) compared to a comparable chip created from PDMS. The molded PS surface exhibited stable surface properties after plasma oxidation as assessed by contact angle measurement. The molded, oxidized PS surface remained an excellent surface for cell culture based on cell adhesion and proliferation. To demonstrate the application of this process for cell biology research, PS was micromolded into two different microarray formats, microwells and microposts, for segregation and tracking of non-adherent and adherent cells, respectively. The micromolded PS possessed properties that were ideal for biological and bioanalytical needs, thus making it an alternative material to PDMS and suitable for building lab-on-a-chip devices by soft lithography methods.

Graphical abstract: Benchtop micromolding of polystyrene by soft lithography

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Article information

03 Apr 2011
13 Jul 2011
First published
02 Aug 2011

Lab Chip, 2011,11, 3089-3097
Article type

Benchtop micromolding of polystyrene by soft lithography

Y. Wang, J. Balowski, C. Phillips, R. Phillips, C. E. Sims and N. L. Allbritton, Lab Chip, 2011, 11, 3089
DOI: 10.1039/C1LC20281B

Social activity

Search articles by author