Recent work has elucidated the potential of important new therapeutic paradigms, including metronomic delivery and chronotherapy, in which the precise timing and location of therapeutic administration has a significant impact on efficacy and toxicity. New drug delivery architectures are needed to not only release drug continuously at precise rates, but also synchronize their release with circadian cycles. We present an actively controlled nanofluidic membrane that exploits electrophoresis to control the magnitude, duration, and timing of drug release. The membrane, produced using high precision silicon fabrication techniques, has platinum electrodes integrated at the inlet and outlet that allow both amplification and reversal of analyte delivery with low applied voltage (at or below 2 VDC). Device operation was demonstrated with solutions of both fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated bovine serum albumin and lysozyme using fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and a lysozyme specific bio-assay and has been characterized for long-term molecular release and release reversibility. Through a combination of theoretical and experimental analysis, the relative contributions of electrophoresis and electroosmosis have been investigated. The membrane's clinically relevant electrophoretic release rate at 2 VDC exceeds the passive release by nearly one order of magnitude, demonstrating the potential to realize the therapeutic paradigm goal.
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