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Issue 12, 2011
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Sustainable chlorine recycling via catalysed HCl oxidation: from fundamentals to implementation

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Abstract

The heterogeneously catalysed oxidation of HCl to Cl2 comprises a sustainable route to recover chlorine from HCl-containing streams in the chemical industry. Conceived by Henry Deacon in 1868, this process has been rejuvenated in the last decade due to increased chlorine demand and the growing excess of by-product HCl from chlorination processes. This reaction suffered from many sterile attempts in the past two centuries to obtain sufficiently active and durable catalysts. Intense research efforts have culminated in the recent industrial implementation of RuO2-based catalysts for HCl oxidation. This paper reviews the new generation of technologies for chlorine recycling under the umbrella of Catalysis Engineering, that is, tackling the microlevel (catalyst design), mesolevel (reactor design), and macrolevel (process design). Key steps in the development are emphasised, including lab-scale catalyst screening, advanced catalyst characterisation, mechanistic and kinetic studies over model and real systems, strategies for large-scale catalyst production, mini-plant tests with a technical catalyst, and reactor design. Future perspectives, challenges, and needs in the field of catalysed Cl2 production are discussed. Scenarios motivating the choice between catalysed HCl oxidation and HCl electrolysis or their integration for optimal chlorine recycling technology are put forward.

Graphical abstract: Sustainable chlorine recycling via catalysed HCl oxidation: from fundamentals to implementation

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Article information


Submitted
21 Jul 2011
Accepted
17 Aug 2011
First published
30 Sep 2011

Energy Environ. Sci., 2011,4, 4786-4799
Article type
Review Article

Sustainable chlorine recycling via catalysed HCl oxidation: from fundamentals to implementation

J. Pérez-Ramírez, C. Mondelli, T. Schmidt, O. F.-K. Schlüter, A. Wolf, L. Mleczko and T. Dreier, Energy Environ. Sci., 2011, 4, 4786
DOI: 10.1039/C1EE02190G

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