Rational chemical design of the next generation of molecular imaging probes based on physics and biology: mixing modalities, colors and signals
In recent years, numerous in vivo molecular imaging probes have been developed. As a consequence, much has been published on the design and synthesis of molecular imaging probes focusing on each modality, each type of material, or each target disease. More recently, second generation molecular imaging probes with unique, multi-functional, or multiplexed characteristics have been designed. This critical review focuses on (i) molecular imaging using combinations of modalities and signals that employ the full range of the electromagnetic spectra, (ii) optimized chemical design of molecular imaging probes for in vivo kinetics based on biology and physiology across a range of physical sizes, (iii) practical examples of second generation molecular imaging probes designed to extract complementary data from targets using multiple modalities, color, and comprehensive signals (277 references).