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Issue 35, 2011
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Core–shell H-ZSM-5/silicalite-1 composites: Brønsted acidity and catalyst deactivation at the individual particle level

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Abstract

A combination of in situUV-Vis and confocal fluorescence micro-spectroscopy is applied to investigate the influence of an external silicalite-1 shell on the Brønsted acidity and coke formation process of individual H-ZSM-5 zeolite crystals. Three probe reactions were used: oligomerization of styrene, methanol-to-olefin (MTO) conversion and aromatization of light naphtha (LNA) derivatives. Oligomerization of styrene leads to the formation of optically active carbocationic oligomers. Different styrene substitutions indicate the conversion ability of the catalyst acid core, a preferred alignment of the oligomers within the straight zeolite channels and a Brønsted acidity gradient throughout the zeolite crystal. Both the MTO conversion and the LNA process lead to limited carbonaceous deposition within the external silicalite-1 layer. This outer shell furthermore prevents the growth of extended coke species at the zeolite external surface. During MTO, the formation of carbonaceous compounds initiates at the center of the H-ZSM-5 zeolite core and expands towards the zeolite exterior. This coke build-up starts with a 420 nm UV-Vis absorption band, assigned to methyl-substituted aromatic carbocations, and a second band around 550 nm, which is indicative of their growth towards larger conjugated systems. Aromatization of linear and branched C5 paraffins causes negligible darkening of the zeolite crystals though it forms fluorescent coke deposits and their precursors within the H-ZSM-5 catalyst. Olefin homologues on the contrary cause pronounced darkening of the zeolite composite. Methyl-branching of these reactants slows down the coke formation rate and produces carbonaceous species that are more restricted in their molecular size.

Graphical abstract: Core–shell H-ZSM-5/silicalite-1 composites: Brønsted acidity and catalyst deactivation at the individual particle level

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
26 Apr 2011
Accepted
08 Jul 2011
First published
03 Aug 2011

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011,13, 15985-15994
Article type
Paper

Core–shell H-ZSM-5/silicalite-1 composites: Brønsted acidity and catalyst deactivation at the individual particle level

D. Mores, E. Stavitski, S. P. Verkleij, A. Lombard, A. Cabiac, L. Rouleau, J. Patarin, A. Simon-Masseron and B. M. Weckhuysen, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 15985
DOI: 10.1039/C1CP21324E

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