Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 34, 2011
Previous Article Next Article

Characterizing TiO2(110) surface states by their work function

Author affiliations


The unreconstructed TiO2(110) surface is prepared in well-defined states having different characteristic stoichiometries, namely reduced (r-TiO2, 6 to 9% surface vacancies), hydroxylated (h-TiO2, vacancies filled with OH), oxygen covered (ox-TiO2, oxygen adatoms on a stoichiometric surface) and quasi-stoichiometric (qs-TiO2, a stoichiometric surface with very few defects). The electronic structure and work function of these surfaces and transition states between them are investigated by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and metastable impact electron spectroscopy (MIES). The character of the surface is associated with a specific value of the work function that varies from 4.9 eV for h-TiO2, 5.2 eV for r-TiO2, 5.35 eV for ox-TiO2 to 5.5 eV for qs-TiO2. We establish the method for an unambiguous characterization of TiO2(110) surface states solely based on the secondary electron emission characteristics. This is facilitated by analysing a weak electron emission below the nominal work function energy. The emission in the low energy cut-off region appears correlated with band gap emission found in UPS spectra and is attributed to localised electron emission through Ti3+(3d) states.

Graphical abstract: Characterizing TiO2(110) surface states by their work function

Back to tab navigation

Article information

09 Dec 2010
07 Jul 2011
First published
22 Jul 2011

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011,13, 15442-15447
Article type

Characterizing TiO2(110) surface states by their work function

A. Borodin and M. Reichling, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 15442
DOI: 10.1039/C0CP02835E

Social activity

Search articles by author