We have studied electrochemical vibrational and energy properties of CO/Pt(111) in the framework of periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We have used a modified version of the previously developed Filhol–Neurock method to correct the unphysical contributions arising from homogeneous background countercharge in the case of thick metallic slabs. The stability of different CO adsorption sites on Pt(111) (Top, Bridge, Hcp, Fcc) has been studied at constant electric field. The energies are dominated by the surface dipole interaction with the external electric field: a strong positive electric field favors the surfaces with the lower dipole moment (that correspond to the ones with the lower coordination). The Stark tuning slope of the CO stretching frequency for a Top site was calculated for different surface coverages in very good agreement with both experimental and other theoretical results. Finally, we have performed an analysis of the origin of Stark shifts showing that the total Stark effect can be split into two competing components. The first one corresponds to the direct effect of charging on the C–O chemical bond: it is referred as an electrochemical effect. The second is the consequence of the surface dipole interaction with the applied electric field that modifies the C–O distance, inducing a change of the C–O force constant because of C–O bond anharmonicity: it is referred as the electromechanical effect. In the CO/Pt(111) case, the dominant contribution is electromechanical. The electrochemical contribution is very small because the electronic system involved in the surface charging is mostly non-bonding as analyzed by looking at the surface Fukui function.
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