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Issue 14, 2011
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Wearable electrochemical sensors for in situ analysis in marine environments

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Abstract

The development of wearable screen-printed electrochemical sensors on underwater garments comprised of the synthetic rubber neoprene is reported. These wearable sensors are able to determine the presence of environmental pollutants and security threats in marine environments. Owing to its unique elastic and superhydrophobic morphology, neoprene is an attractive substrate for thick-film electrochemical sensors for aquatic environments and offers high-resolution printing with no apparent defects. The neoprene-based sensor was evaluated for the voltammetric detection of trace heavy metal contaminants and nitroaromatic explosives in seawater samples. We also describe the first example of enzyme (tyrosinase) immobilization on a wearable substrate towards the amperometric biosensing of phenolic contaminants in seawater. Furthermore, the integration of a miniaturized potentiostat directly on the underwater garment is demonstrated. The wearable sensor-potentiostat microsystem provides a visual indication and alert if the levels of harmful contaminants have exceeded a pre-defined threshold. The concept discussed here is well-suited for integration into dry- and wetsuits worn by divers and recreational surfers/swimmers, thereby providing them with the ability to continuously assess their surroundings for environmental contaminants and security hazards.

Graphical abstract: Wearable electrochemical sensors for in situ analysis in marine environments

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Article information


Submitted
07 Mar 2011
Accepted
18 Apr 2011
First published
02 Jun 2011

Analyst, 2011,136, 2912-2917
Article type
Paper

Wearable electrochemical sensors for in situ analysis in marine environments

K. Malzahn, J. R. Windmiller, G. Valdés-Ramírez, M. J. Schöning and J. Wang, Analyst, 2011, 136, 2912
DOI: 10.1039/C1AN15193B

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