The design and characterization of a new nanostructured organic–inorganic hybrid material and its application to L-lactic acid determination are described. This material is based on the integration of the enzyme lactate oxidase (LOx) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into a sol–gel 3D polymeric network derived from (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) previously formed onto a gold surface. MPTS presents the advantage of forming a 3D polymeric network containing a large number of thiol tail groups distributed throughout its structure that enable both its anchoring onto gold surfaces and the AuNPs incorporation. Moreover, this matrix provides a biocompatible environment that preserves the catalytic activity of LOx after its immobilization and allows the incorporation of a high amount of enzyme, which is expected to improve the sensitivity of the final biosensing device. Characterization of the designed biosensing platform was performed using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. From the conjunction of these techniques, information about (i) the kinetic of LOx adsorption process in real time, (ii) the amount of LOx incorporated into the network, and (iii) the morphological characteristics at the nanometre level of the designed biosensing material was obtained. This information is very useful on the development of successful biosensing devices. Finally, the response of the biosensor to L-lactic acid was evaluated. The biosensor responds linearly to L-lactic acid in the range of 50 µM to 0.25 mM, with a sensitivity of 3.4 µA mM−1 and a detection limit of 4.0 µM.
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