Atomic spectrometry update–X-ray fluorescence spectrometry
This comprehensive review covers the latest published activities using XRF techniques. X-ray analytical equipment continues to be integrated with X-ray emission/diffraction/absorption techniques with the growing use of synchrotron radiation (SR) sources reflected in the literature. This integration trend was also prevalent in the development of small-scale laboratory equipment. X-ray detectors have advanced with pixellated systems, micro-calorimeter types and the now established silicon drift detectors being readily used by many authors. Matrix correction and calibration procedures have developed to accommodate instrumental developments related to micro-beam and bulk analysis. SR-based micro-techniques for two and three dimensional imaging were reported in research activities in applications for clinical, biological, environmental and cultural heritage studies as well as investigations of extraterrestrial material. Sample preparation developments continue, especially for TXRF. The extension of TXRF to measure the angle dependence fluorescence signal (GI-XRF, XSW) showed increased interest with several groups applying the technique to depth profiling and thin layer analysis of nano-particles. More applications were reported this year for the reversed technique (GE-XRF) combining micro-beam analysis with surface sensitivity. Geochemical mapping of the moon is reported after space flight measurements used the Sun as a radiation source. The literature reflects increasing quantitative analysis using portable XRF with a welcomed growth in acceptance by the Food and Drug authorities and other applied users. This year's Update offers dietary delights for those who enjoy crab meat and an insight into the eating habits of elephants. Advice for gardeners contemplating a green roof is reported along with analysis of the wood treatments used in the manufacture of Stradivari and Guarneri violins. XRF has also played its part in the development of self-cleaning fabrics.