This paper describes the fabrication and the performance of microfluidic paper-based electrochemical sensing devices (we call the microfluidic paper-based electrochemical devices, µPEDs). The µPEDs comprise paper-based microfluidic channels patterned by photolithography or wax printing, and electrodes screen-printed from conducting inks (e.g., carbon or Ag/AgCl). We demonstrated that the µPEDs are capable of quantifying the concentrations of various analytes (e.g., heavy-metal ions and glucose) in aqueous solutions. This low-cost analytical device should be useful for applications in public health, environmental monitoring, and the developing world.
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