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Issue 47, 2009
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Para-hydrogen induced polarization in multi-spin systems studied at variable magnetic field

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Abstract

A theoretical description of para-hydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) is developed, applicable to coupled multi-spin systems that are polarized at an arbitrary magnetic field. Scalar spin–spin interaction is considered to be the leading factor governing PHIP formation and transfer. At low magnetic fields, these interactions make the spins strongly coupled and cause efficient, coherent re-distribution of spin polarization. We describe the effects of strong coupling and field cycling for a three-spin system and compare calculated spectra with the experimental examples available. By using a fast field-cycling device, which shuttles the whole NMR probe, and thereby makes high-resolution NMR detection at high field possible, we studied PHIP patterns for a set of different fields between 0.1 mT and 7 T. PHIP spectra were measured for ethylbenzene as the product of a catalytic reaction between para-hydrogen and styrene. Additionally, the polarizations of ethylbenzene bound to the catalyst, and of the starting styrene molecule were analyzed. This is the first time that the full field dependence of PHIP has been determined experimentally. The spectra obtained are in perfect agreement with the simulations for the CH2 and CH3 protons of ethylbenzene and even for its weakly-polarized aromatic protons. Analysis of styrene polarization shows that the time profile of the field variation has pronounced effects on the PHIP pattern. Our study gives evidence that scalar spin–spin interactions determine the PHIP patterns. Possible applications of the theory are discussed.

Graphical abstract: Para-hydrogen induced polarization in multi-spin systems studied at variable magnetic field

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
15 Jul 2009
Accepted
17 Aug 2009
First published
02 Sep 2009

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2009,11, 11146-11156
Article type
Paper

Para-hydrogen induced polarization in multi-spin systems studied at variable magnetic field

S. E. Korchak, K. L. Ivanov, A. V. Yurkovskaya and H.-M. Vieth, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2009, 11, 11146
DOI: 10.1039/B914188J

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