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Issue 1, 2008
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Biomolecular gradients in cell culture systems

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Biomolecule gradients have been shown to play roles in a wide range of biological processes including development, inflammation, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. Elucidation of these phenomena requires the ability to expose cells to biomolecule gradients that are quantifiable, controllable, and mimic those that are present in vivo. Here we review the major biological phenomena in which biomolecule gradients are employed, traditional in vitro gradient-generating methods developed over the past 50 years, and new microfluidic devices for generating gradients. Microfluidic gradient generators offer greater levels of precision, quantitation, and spatiotemporal gradient control than traditional methods, and may greatly enhance our understanding of many biological phenomena. For each method, we outline the salient features, capabilities, and applications.

Graphical abstract: Biomolecular gradients in cell culture systems

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The article was received on 03 Aug 2007, accepted on 21 Nov 2007 and first published on 06 Dec 2007

Article type: Critical Review
DOI: 10.1039/B711887B
Lab Chip, 2008,8, 34-57

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    Biomolecular gradients in cell culture systems

    T. M. Keenan and A. Folch, Lab Chip, 2008, 8, 34
    DOI: 10.1039/B711887B

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