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Issue 8, 2007
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The third evolution of ionic liquids: active pharmaceutical ingredients

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A modular, ionic liquid (IL)-based strategy allows compartmentalized molecular level design of a wide range of new materials with tunable biological, as well as the well known physical and chemical, properties of ILs, which thus deserve consideration as ‘tunable’ active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with novel performance enhancement and delivery options. IL strategies can take advantage of the dual nature (discrete ions) of ILs to realize enhancements which may include controlled solubility (e.g., both hydrophilic and hydrophobic ILs are possible), bioavailability or bioactivity, stability, elimination of polymorphism, new delivery options (e.g., slow release or the IL-API as ‘solvent’), or even customized pharmaceutical cocktails. Here we exemplify this approach with, among others, lidocaine docusate (LD), a hydrophobic room temperature IL which, when compared to lidocaine hydrochloride, exhibits modified solubility, increased thermal stability, and a significant enhancement in the efficacy of topical analgesia in two different models of mouse antinociception. Studies of the suppression of nerve growth factor mediated neuronal differentiation in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells suggests potential differences between LD and lidocaine hydrochloride at the cellular level indicating an entirely different mechanism of action. Taken together these results suggest that the unique physiochemical properties of ILs in general, may confer a novel effect for the bioactivity of an API due to (at least) slow-release properties in addition to novel delivery mechanisms.

Graphical abstract: The third evolution of ionic liquids: active pharmaceutical ingredients

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Publication details

The article was received on 02 May 2007, accepted on 01 Jun 2007 and first published on 22 Jun 2007

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/B706677P
New J. Chem., 2007,31, 1429-1436

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    The third evolution of ionic liquids: active pharmaceutical ingredients

    W. L. Hough, M. Smiglak, H. Rodríguez, R. P. Swatloski, S. K. Spear, D. T. Daly, J. Pernak, J. E. Grisel, R. D. Carliss, M. D. Soutullo, J. H. Davis, Jr. and R. D. Rogers, New J. Chem., 2007, 31, 1429
    DOI: 10.1039/B706677P

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