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Issue 11, 2007
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The influence of anion species on the toxicity of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids observed in an (eco)toxicological test battery

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Abstract

To enlarge the restricted knowledge about the hazard potentials of ionic liquids to man and the environment we have concentrated on analysing systematically the anion effect of six different anion moieties (Cl, BF4, (CF3SO2)2N, (CF3)2N, octylsulfate and bis(1,2-benzenediolato)borate) and the influence of the side chain length at the cation on (eco)toxicity. For our investigations, we used the flexible (eco)toxicological test battery considering aquatical and terrestrial compartments as well as different trophic levels including enzymes (acetylcholinesterase), mammalian cells (IPC-81), luminescent marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), limnic unicellular green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), wheat (Triticum aestivum), cress (Lepidium sativum), duckweed (Lemna minor) and a soil invertebrate (the spring tail Folsomia candida). In general, the side chain effect was found consistently in all used test systems from the molecular up to the organismic level. Such a consistent response of the different test systems could not be confirmed for the tested anion moieties. Furthermore, in most of the investigated test systems the anion effects are not as distinct as the demonstrated side chain length effect. Nevertheless, for (CF3SO2)2N a clear (eco)toxicological hazard potential is evident. Thus, the strategy to check toxicities within a flexible (eco)toxicological test battery has been proven to be effective for uncovering hazard potentials of ionic liquids.

Graphical abstract: The influence of anion species on the toxicity of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids observed in an (eco)toxicological test battery

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
17 Apr 2007
Accepted
13 Jul 2007
First published
07 Aug 2007

Green Chem., 2007,9, 1198-1207
Article type
Paper

The influence of anion species on the toxicity of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids observed in an (eco)toxicological test battery

M. Matzke, S. Stolte, K. Thiele, T. Juffernholz, J. Arning, J. Ranke, U. Welz-Biermann and B. Jastorff, Green Chem., 2007, 9, 1198
DOI: 10.1039/B705795D

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