Probing dynamics of complex molecular systems with ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy
Ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy is described and a number of experimental examples are given. Details of the experimental method including the pulse sequence, heterodyne detection, and determination of the absorptive component of the 2D spectrum are outlined. As an initial example, the 2D spectrum of the stretching mode of CO bound to the protein myoglobin (MbCO) is presented. The time dependence of the 2D spectrum of MbCO, which is caused by protein structural evolution, is presented and its relationship to the frequency–frequency correlation function is described and used to make protein structural assignments based on comparisons to molecular dynamics simulations. The 2D vibrational echo experiments on the protein horseradish peroxidase are presented. The time dependence of the 2D spectra of the enzyme in the free form and with a substrate bound at the active site are compared and used to examine the influence of substrate binding on the protein’s structural dynamics. The application of 2D vibrational echo spectroscopy to the study of chemical exchange under thermal equilibrium conditions is described. 2D vibrational echo chemical exchange spectroscopy is applied to the study of formation and dissociation of organic solute–solvent complexes and to the isomerization around a carbon–carbon single bond of an ethane derivative.