Electrochemical sensors for environmental monitoring: design, development and applications
The advancement in miniaturization and microfabrication technology has led to the development of sensitive and selective electrochemical devices for field-based and in situ environmental monitoring. Electrochemical sensing devices have a major impact upon the monitoring of priority pollutants by allowing the instrument to be taken to the sample (rather than the traditional way of bringing the sample to the laboratory). Such devices can perform automated chemical analyses in complex matrices and provide rapid, reliable and inexpensive measurements of a variety of inorganic and organic pollutants. Although not exhaustive due to the vast amounts of new and exciting electrochemical research, this review addresses many important advances in electrochemical sensor design and development for environmental monitoring purposes. Critical design factors and development issues including analytical improvements (e.g. detection limits), microfabrication and remote communication are presented. In addition, modern environmental applications will be discussed and future perspectives considered.