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Issue 19, 2000
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The isolation, characterisation, gas phase electron diffraction and crystal structure of the thermally stable radical [CF3[upper bond 1 start]CSNSC[upper bond 1 end]CF3

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Abstract

The first structural characterisation of a heterocyclic free radical in all phases has been achieved. 4,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)-1,3,2-dithiazol-2-yl, [CF3[upper bond 1 start]CSNSC[upper bond 1 end]CF34d, a 7π radical, was prepared quantitatively on reduction of [4d][AsF6] with various reducing agents. It is a blue gas over a green paramagnetic liquid [19F NMR δ −59.7], which freezes to a diamagnetic black-green solid. There is a remarkably large volume increase on melting implying that the liquid consists of discrete monomeric radicals, and consistently there is no tendency to dimerise in CCl3F solution and the vibrational spectra attributable to the monomer are essentially identical in all phases. The thermodynamic properties obtained for the vapourisation, sublimation and melting processes are very similar to those of related diamagnetic materials. 4d is remarkably thermochemically robust giving decomposition products identical to those from photochemical decomposition, a quantitative mixture of CF3[upper bond 1 start]CSSC[upper bond 1 end]CF3 (and its oligomers) and CF3[upper bond 1 start]CNSNC[upper bond 1 end]CF3. The reaction chemistry is described. The crystal structure shows radical 4d to be a planar heterocyclic ring which associates in the solid as a diamagnetic tetramer. The structure of the gaseous monomer determined by electron diffraction is very similar to that in the solid phase. Comprehensive physical measurements were made including the UV-visible spectra of the bright blue solutions, variable temperature magnetic susceptibility and quantitative variable temperature ESR spectra both of which confirm a phase change from a diamagnetic solid to a paramagnetic liquid on melting, the vibrational spectra, and the photoelectron spectrum of the gaseous free radical. A study of the behavior of R[upper bond 1 start]CSNSC[upper bond 1 end]R˙ (R = H, CH3 or CF3) given by the reduction of R[upper bond 1 start]CSNSC[upper bond 1 end]R+ on increase of concentrations of radical is reported, including the isolation of H[upper bond 1 start]CSNSC[upper bond 1 end]CF3˙ at low temperature. The experimental and calculated [UMPW1PW91/6-31+G*] structures of 4d are in good agreement. These and related calculations also support the interpretation of the vibrational and photoelectron spectra, and the thermodynamic properties of 4d, as well as provide possible explanations for the relative stabilities of R[upper bond 1 start]CSNSC[upper bond 1 end]R˙, and imply that the weak intramolecular interactions in 4d in the solid state are largely ionic Sδ+  Nδ interactions.

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Publication details

The article was received on 23 Feb 2000, accepted on 03 Jul 2000 and first published on 01 Sep 2000


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/B001489N
Citation: J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans., 2000,0, 3365-3382

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    The isolation, characterisation, gas phase electron diffraction and crystal structure of the thermally stable radical [CF3[upper bond 1 start]CSNSC[upper bond 1 end]CF3

    S. Brownridge, H. Du, S. A. Fairhurst, R. C. Haddon, H. Oberhammer, S. Parsons, J. Passmore, M. J. Schriver, L. H. Sutcliffe and N. P. C. Westwood, J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans., 2000, 0, 3365
    DOI: 10.1039/B001489N

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