One-step electropolymeric co-immobilization of glucose oxidase and heparin for amperometric biosensing of glucose
Electropolymerization was used for the co-deposition of glucose oxidase and heparin onto metal electrode transducers. Such electropolymeric co-entrapment within a non-conducting poly(1,2-phenylenediamine) (PPD) film imparts both biocatalytic and anticoagulation activities onto the transducer, and greatly improves the performance of the sensor after exposure to whole blood. Essentially identical glucose signals are observed before and after exposure to blood samples. Scanning electron micrographs after such exposure reveal no platelet deposition or formation of a fibrin “clot”. The effect of the heparin co-immobilization on the glucose response is examined. Improved biocompatibility is reported also in connection with a needle-type carbon paste biosensor configuration. The simultaneous localization of the enzyme and heparin offers great promise for simplifying the preparation of enzyme electrodes and designing biocompatible implantable glucose biosensors.