Bromide assisted addition of hydrogen bromide to alkynes and allenes
The addition of 0.1 M quaternary ammonium bromide to a solution of 20% trifluoroacetic acid in methylene chloride causes a large rate increase in the reaction of non-conjugated alkynes. The initial vinyl bromide product reacts further to provide a mixture of isomeric vinyl bromides and dibromides. At high salt concentrations however, the secondary reactions are prevented and only the initial vinyl bromide is found. In contrast to the corresponding addition to alkenes, the predominant mechanism is proposed to involve a one-step, concerted, nucleophilic attack by halide ion upon an acid–alkyne π-complex which produces the vinyl halide directly. A minor path involving syn addition is also seen. At all salt concentrations, allenes produce significant amounts of rearrangement products suggesting the significant involvement of a cationic mechanism.