Preparation and crystallinity of a large unsubstituted crown ether, cyclic heptacosa(oxyethylene)(cyclo-E27, 81-crown-27), studied by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry
Cyclic heptacosa(oxyethyelene)(cyclo-E27, 81-crown-27) was prepared from linear α-hydro, ω-hydroxy-heptacosa(oxyethylene) by reaction with tosyl chloride under alkaline conditions, purified by preparative-scale gel permeation chromatography, and studied by laser-Raman spectroscopy, wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering, and differential scanning calorimetry. Comparison was made with the properties of linear oligo(oxyethylene) dimethyl ethers (including C1E27C1). The sub-cell of the crystalline cyclic oligomer was the same as that of its linear counterparts, i.e. the same as that of high-molar-mass poly(oxyethylene). However, the cyclic oligomer crystallised as a twice-folded ring, as confirmed by its long spacing and the frequency of its single-node longitudinal acoustic mode (LAM-1). Enthalpies of fusion and melting temperatures were analysed to provide estimates of the enthalpy and entropy of formation of a fold in an oligo(oxyethylene) layer crystal.