Photoelectrochemistry using quinone radical anions
The photoelectrochemistry of quinone radical anions has been demonstrated qualitatively by the photoassisted reduction of methyl viologen with benzoquinone and of neutral red with chloranil. Data were then collected for the estimation of quenching rate constants using Marcus–Weller theory. Reduction potentials of seven quinones were obtained in four solvents (and two aqueous mixtures) by cyclic voltammetry. The solvent effects on these potentials were studied by fitting them to the Taft relationship. The effects of proton donors were also noted. Absorption spectra of the radical anions were measured and the solvent effects noted and commented upon. From the molar absorption coefficients of the radical anions, the mean lifetimes of the excited states were estimated. Fluorescence spectra were obtained for anthraquinone and naphthaquinone radical anions and excitation energies were calculated. These values were estimated for the other quinones. Values of redox potentials for the excited radical anions were thence obtained. The Gibbs energies of the electron transfers between the excited quinone radical anions and the various substrates were obtained and hence the Gibbs energies of activation were calculated using the Marcus equation. The quenching rate constants were calculated using the Rehm–Weller equation and plotted vs. ΔG giving a characteristic Marcus plot including some data in the inverted region. The significance of the inverted region is discussed.